Miensk. Менск (1901-17)
Беларуская (тарашкевіца): Менск (Miensk). Прывітальная зборная паштоўка
Minsk is the capital and largest city of Belarus, a country in Eastern Europe. The city's history dates back to the 9th century. According to legend, Minsk was founded by a prince named Menesk, who established a fortress on the banks of the Svislach River. The city was first mentioned in historical records in 1067, when it was part of the Kievan Rus, a medieval Slavic state. The Rus people were a group of East Slavic tribes that lived in what is now Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus in the 9th to 13th centuries. They are often referred to as "Scandinavian" because they were initially ruled by Scandinavian Vikings, who established a state called Kievan Rus' in the 9th century. The Rus' people were a mix of Slavic tribes who lived in the region, as well as Scandinavian Vikings who had settled there. The Vikings, who were known as Varangians, played a dominant role in the early history of Kievan Rus', but they eventually intermarried with the Slavic tribes and adopted their culture and customs. In the 13th century, Minsk became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a medieval state in Eastern Europe that was founded in the 13th century and existed until the late 18th century. It was one of the largest and most influential states in Europe during its time, and it covered a vast territory that included much of present-day Belarus, parts of Poland, Ukraine, and Russia. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was engaged in conflicts with its neighbors, including the Teutonic Knights, the Mongols, and the Russian state. Despite these challenges, it managed to maintain its independence and become one of the most powerful states in Europe. In the late 14th century, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania entered into a union with the Kingdom of Poland, forming the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. This union lasted until the late 18th century when the Commonwealth was dissolved and the territories of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania were annexed by the Russian Empire. There has been a Jewish community in Minsk for centuries, and it has played a significant role in the cultural and economic life of the city. During the medieval period, Jews in Belarus were subject to persecution and discrimination, but they also made significant contributions to the region's economy and culture. Many Jews in Minsk were engaged in trade and commerce, and Jewish merchants played a key role in the development of the region's economy. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Jews in Belarus were subjected to pogroms and other forms of violence. During World War II, the Jewish community in Belarus was decimated by the Nazi regime, which killed hundreds of thousands of Jews in the region. Minsk remained part of Russia until the end of World War I in 1918. After the war, Minsk became the capital of the newly independent Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic, and it played a key role in the Soviet Union's industrialization and modernization efforts.