Egypt ( (listen) EE-jipt; Arabic: مِصرMiṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip (Palestine) and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, and across the Mediterranean lie Greece, Turkey and Cyprus, although none share a land border with Egypt.

Egypt has one of the longest histories of any country, tracing its heritage along the Nile Delta back to the 6th–4th millennia BCE. Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt saw some of the earliest developments of writing, agriculture, urbanisation, organised religion and central government. Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes, Karnak, and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of scientific and popular interest. Egypt's long and rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, which has endured, and often assimilated, various foreign influences, including Greek, Persian, Roman, Arab, Ottoman Turkish, and Nubian. Egypt was an early and important centre of Christianity, but was largely Islamised in the seventh century and remains a predominantly Muslim country, albeit with a significant Christian minority.

Modern Egypt dates back to 1922, when it gained independence from the British Empire as a monarchy. Following the 1952 revolution, Egypt declared itself a republic, and in 1958 it merged with Syria to form the United Arab Republic, which dissolved in 1961. Throughout the second half of the 20th century, Egypt endured social and religious strife and political instability, fighting several armed conflicts with Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973, and occupying the Gaza Strip intermittently until 1967. In 1978, Egypt signed the Camp David Accords, officially withdrawing from the Gaza Strip and recognising Israel. The country continues to face challenges, from political unrest, including the recent 2011 revolution and its aftermath, to terrorism and economic underdevelopment. Egypt's current government, a semi-presidential republic has been described by a number of watchdogs as authoritarian or heading an authoritarian regime, responsible for perpetuating the country's problematic human rights record.

Islam is the official religion of Egypt and Arabic is its official language. With over 100 million inhabitants, Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa, the Middle East, and the Arab world, the third-most populous in Africa (after Nigeria and Ethiopia), and the thirteenth-most populous in the world. The great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometres (15,000 sq mi), where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo, Alexandria and other major cities in the Nile Delta.

Egypt is considered to be a regional power in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world, and a middle power worldwide. With one of the largest and most diversified economies in the Middle East, which is projected to become one of the largest in the world in the 21st century, Egypt has the third-largest economy in Africa, the world's 40th-largest economy by nominal GDP, and the 19-largest by PPP. Egypt is a founding member of the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Arab League, the African Union, and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.

Egypt Media

76,786 media by topicpage 1 of 768
Woman posed as sphinx

Woman posed as sphinx

Accession Number: 1983:0063:0002..Maker: Dr. W. Simon..Title: Woman posed as sphinx..Date: ca. 1910..Medium: color plate, screen (Autochrome) process..Dimensions: Image: 8 x 8 cm Overall: 10 x 12.6 cm..George... More

Sealing, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

Sealing, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

From Egypt, Memphite Region, Lisht South, Pyramid complex of Senwosret I, north temple gateway, MMA excavations, 1913–14 Middle Kingdom

Sealing fragment, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC
Composite eye bead, Egypt, Late period to Roman period 500 BCE – 642 CE
Conical Gaming Piece from Neferkhawet's Tomb

Conical Gaming Piece from Neferkhawet's Tomb

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Asasif, Tomb of Neferkhawet (MMA 729), east chamber, Burial VIII, inside coffin, MMA excavations, 1934–35 New Kingdom

Document Sealing With Multiple Seal Impressions
Worker Shabti of Henettawy (C), Daughter of Isetemkheb
Two fingers amulet, Late Perod, Ancient Egypt, 664 BC - 332 BC
Sealing, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC
Vessel fragment, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550  -1070 BC

Vessel fragment, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550 -1070 BC

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Malqata, Palace of Amenhotep III New Kingdom

Bag-shaped Jar, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550  -1070 BC
Sealing, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC
Statuette of a ram, Late Perod, Ancient Egypt, 664 BC - 332 BC
Sealing, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC
Plunderers' Wedge, Egypt, Third Intermediate Period (1070–664 BC)
Pomegranate Earring, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550  -1070 BC

Pomegranate Earring, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550 -1070 BC

See 01.4.1a From Egypt, Northern Upper Egypt, Abydos, Cemetery D, Tomb D99, Egypt Exploration Fund excavations New Kingdom

Funerary Cone of Mutirdis, Late Perod, Ancient Egypt, 664 BC - 332 BC
Scarab, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550  -1070 BC

Scarab, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550 -1070 BC

From Egypt New Kingdom, Ramesside

Tool, Predynastic Egypt, 6000 - 3150 BC

Tool, Predynastic Egypt, 6000 - 3150 BC

From Egypt, Fayum, camp II (CII) basin, Petrie excavations, 1926 Predynastic Period

Sealing, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC
Votive Cow Plaque, Upper Egypt
Finger stall, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550  -1070 BC

Finger stall, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550 -1070 BC

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Wadi Gabbanat el-Qurud, Wadi D, Tomb of the 3 Foreign Wives of Thutmose III New Kingdom

Sealing, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

Sealing, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

From Egypt, Memphite Region, Lisht South, Pyramid complex of Senwosret I, north temple gateway, MMA excavations, 1913–14 Middle Kingdom

Worker Shabti of Henettawy (C), Daughter of Isetemkheb
Relief Fragment from the Tomb of Neferu or Khety

Relief Fragment from the Tomb of Neferu or Khety

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Deir el-Bahri, Tomb of Neferu or Khety (TT 319/311, MMA 31/508), MMA excavations, 1923–24 Middle Kingdom

Inlay fragment, millefiori, Egypt, Greco-Roman Period, 332 BCE – 642 CE
Razor-tweezer, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550  -1070 BC
Neith, Late Perod, Ancient Egypt, 664 BC - 332 BC
Amulet, Old Kingdom, Egypt, 2575 - 2150 BC
Splash-decorated bead, Egypt, Greco-Roman Period, 332 BCE – 642 CE
Funerary Cone of Sare, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550  -1070 BC
Funerary Cone of the King's Son of Kush Merymose

Funerary Cone of the King's Son of Kush Merymose

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes New Kingdom

Adze Handle, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

Adze Handle, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Deir el-Bahri, Tomb TT 312, MMA 509, courtyard, MMA excavations, 1922–23 Middle Kingdom

Sealing, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC
Scarab of the Lady of the House, Nebtua

Scarab of the Lady of the House, Nebtua

From Egypt, Memphite Region, Lisht North, Cemetery, MMA excavations Middle Kingdom–Second Intermediate Period

Scarab with device of kneeling fertility figure before obelisk

Scarab with device of kneeling fertility figure before obelisk

From Egypt Third Intermediate Period or later

Scarab of Wah, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC
Sealing, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC
Scarab, Thutmose III, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550  -1070 BC
Sealing, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC
Sealing, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC
String of 4 Eyed Beads

String of 4 Eyed Beads

From Egypt New Kingdom

Storage jar, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550  -1070 BC

Storage jar, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550 -1070 BC

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Wadi Gabbanat el-Qurud, Wadi D, Tomb of the 3 Foreign Wives of Thutmose III New Kingdom

Broad collar, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

Broad collar, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

From Egypt, Memphite Region, Lisht North, Tomb 954, Burial 954E, MMA excavations, 1921–22 Middle Kingdom

Bracelet or armlet with uraei

Bracelet or armlet with uraei

From Egypt, Central Delta, Tell el-Balamun (Diospolis Inferior), Carnarvon/Carter excavations, 1913 Ptolemaic or Roman Period

Sculptor's Trial Piece showing an old man and on the reverse the lower part of a figure
Part of an Octogonal Column from the Temple of Mentuhotep II at Deir el-Bahri

Part of an Octogonal Column from the Temple of Mentuhotep II at Deir e...

Two joined fragments from an octagonal column, from the ambulatory of Mentuhotep II's temple. The original column was carved from a single piece of sandstone quarried near Aswan. It is inscribed with one of the... More

Mold-pressed amulet or fragment

Mold-pressed amulet or fragment

From Egypt Persian-Ptolemaic Period

Scarab, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550  -1070 BC
Red jasper amulet of tyet

Red jasper amulet of tyet

Amulet of a girdle tie. Late Dynastic

Scarab Inscribed for the King's Principal Wife Ahmose
Sealing, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

Sealing, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

From Egypt, Memphite Region, Lisht South, Pyramid complex of Senwosret I, north temple gateway, MMA excavations, 1913–14 Middle Kingdom

Amulet, Old Kingdom, Egypt, 2575 - 2150 BC
Bes rattle, Egypt, Third Intermediate Period (1070–664 BC)
Broad Anklet of Sithathoryunet, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC
Model coffin, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

Model coffin, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC

From Egypt, Memphite Region, Lisht South, Pyramid Temple of Senwosret I, Causeway, Northern lane, MMA excavations, 1911–12 Middle Kingdom

Jar, Old Kingdom, Egypt, 2575 - 2150 BC
Surveyor's Stake from a Foundation Deposit for Hatshepsut's Temple
Marble, Egypt, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Die, Egypt, Greco-Roman Period, 332 BCE – 642 CE
Model Bread Loaf from the Foundation Deposit for Hatshepsut's Tomb
Worker Shabti of Henettawy (C), Daughter of Isetemkheb
Worker Shabti of Henettawy (C), Daughter of Isetemkheb

Worker Shabti of Henettawy (C), Daughter of Isetemkheb

See 25.3.19. From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Deir el-Bahri, Tomb MMA 60, Chamber B, Burial of Henettawy C (4), MMA excavations, 1923–24 Third Intermediate Period

Carved Plaque from a Bracelet
Worker Shabti of Henettawy (C), Daughter of Isetemkheb
Ceremonial Implement in the Shape of an Ankh
Bowl with stones and carnelian bead
Fragment of an ovoid flask
Tusk amulet, Predynastic Egypt, 6000 - 3150 BC

Tusk amulet, Predynastic Egypt, 6000 - 3150 BC

From Egypt Predynastic, Late Naqada l–Naqada II

Head from an Osiride Statue of Hatshepsut
Stela of King Intef II Wahankh
Ointment jar and cover, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC
Sickle Insert, Egypt, Metropolitan Museum of Art
Spool-Shaped Game Pieces from Neferkhawet's Tomb

Spool-Shaped Game Pieces from Neferkhawet's Tomb

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Asasif, Tomb of Neferkhawet (MMA 729), east chamber, Burial VIII, inside coffin, MMA excavations, 1934–35 New Kingdom

Needle, Predynastic Egypt, 6000 - 3150 BC
Shabti of Tjebure, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550  -1070 BC
Funerary Cone of the King's Son of Kush Merymose

Funerary Cone of the King's Son of Kush Merymose

See 15.2.61 From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes New Kingdom

Basket Vessel, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550  -1070 BC
Ointment Jar, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550  -1070 BC
Sample of Cloth with Pink Dye
Worker Shabti of Henettawy (C), Daughter of Isetemkheb

Worker Shabti of Henettawy (C), Daughter of Isetemkheb

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Deir el-Bahri, Tomb MMA 60, Chamber B, Burial of Henettawy C (4), MMA excavations, 1923–24 Third Intermediate Period

Wax Figure of Duamutef Belonging to Djedmutesankh

Wax Figure of Duamutef Belonging to Djedmutesankh

see 25.3.154a From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Deir el-Bahri, Tomb MMA 60, Chamber B, Burial of Djedmutesankh (5), MMA excavations, 1923–24 Third Intermediate Period

Head of a King, Possibly Seankhkare Mentuhotep III
Bowl, Egypt, Ptolemaic Period (332–30 BCE)
Lid of Coffin, Egypt, Early New Kingdom 1550 - 1070 BCE
Ointment Jar, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550  -1070 BC

Ointment Jar, New Kingdom, Egypt, 1550 -1070 BC

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Deir el-Bahri, Temple of Hatshepsut, Foundation Deposit 8 (H), MMA excavations, 1926–27 New Kingdom

Inlay, hieroglyph, Late Perod, Ancient Egypt, 664 BC - 332 BC

Inlay, hieroglyph, Late Perod, Ancient Egypt, 664 BC - 332 BC

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Deir el-Bahri, Tomb of Nespekashuty (TT 312, MMA 509), MMA excavations, 1922–23 Late Period, Saite

God Horus Protecting King Nectanebo II
Man squatting with head resting on his hands on his knees
Head from a Large Statue of a Priest or Dignitary
Snake Ring, Egypt, Greco-Roman Period, 332 BCE – 642 CE
Shroud of a woman with bent-arm posture

Shroud of a woman with bent-arm posture

From Egypt Ptolemaic Period or Roman Period

Key, Egypt, Ptolemaic Period (332–30 BCE)

Key, Egypt, Ptolemaic Period (332–30 BCE)

From Egypt, Upper Egypt, Thebes, Dra Abu el-Naga, Carnarvon/Carter excavations Ptolemaic Period

Relief block from a temple of Amenemhat I
Face from a statuette, Predynastic Egypt, 6000 - 3150 BC
Inlay / bead blank with face
Shabti and Coffin, Ancient Egypt, Metropolitan Museum of Art

Shabti and Coffin, Ancient Egypt, Metropolitan Museum of Art

Shabti dolls were funerary figures in ancient Egypt that accompanied the deceased to the after-life. Shabti's name is derived from the Egyptian swb for stick but also corresponds to the word for `answer' (wsb) ... More

Tile from Side of Stairway to Dais
Kitchen Tender being Rowed, Egypt, Middle Kingdom, 2040 – 1640 BC
Tile from marsh scene, Amarna Period, Ancient Egypt
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